It is party time in the United States with the Cinco de Mayo fiestas around the corner. So raise your tequila glass and rock out Mexican style to celebrate the holiday that commemorates Mexico’s victory over the French.
Cinco de Mayo is one of the most celebrated Mexican national holidays in the United States,Cinco de Mayo – Tequila, Mariachis, Chiles, Oh my! Articles where many U.S. businesses and restaurants are decorated in green, white and red, the colors of Mexico’s flag, to observe this important day in traditional Mexican fanfare. Although Cinco de Mayo celebrates the determination of Mexicans to remain free from foreign control, it is not Mexico’s Independence Day.
Following the devastating loss of the Mexican-American War in 1848, Mexico was both financially and morally defeated. In 1861, president Benito Juarez issued a moratorium in which all foreign-debt payments would be suspended for a period of two years. Furious and eager to collect payment, England, France, and Spain invaded Mexico.
Unbeknownst to the other countries, France had its own agenda, ultimately aiming to impose a monarchical government upon the nations of Central and South America. Shortly after President Juarez offered a type of promissory note that guaranteed payments on its debt after the two years, England and Spain returned home, but the French continued their siege on Mexico.
On May 5, 1862, Juarez commanded General Ignacio Zaragoza to block the advance of the French forces at the fortified hills of Loreto and Guadalupe near the city of Puebla. With only 2,000 men, most of them local Zacapoaxtla Indians from the Puebla region with no formal military training and little weaponry, the Mexicans were able to briefly defeat the French army of 6,000.
The victory was short-lived, though soon after, France conquered Puebla and the rest of Mexico, ruling until 1867. Through a popular revolt, Juarez was finally restored to power, remaining leader of Mexico until his death in 1872.
BEYOND CINCO DE MAYO
Cinco de Mayo was born in the central Mexican state of Puebla. Its capital city, also called Puebla, is one of the most impressive and oldest colonial cities in Mexico. Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its unique beauty, the magnificent historic center is an ideal starting point for a Cinco de Mayo tour.
While in Puebla, visitors can enjoy the historical Cinco de Mayo sites such as the tomb and monument of Ignacio Zaragoza, the general who led Mexico to victory over France. The site of the battle is also a popular destination, featuring a museum with a display of hundreds of toy soldiers set up to show what happened on that day. Art expositions, concerts of both contemporary and classical Mexican music and a Mexican film series are also part of the attractions.
An annual parade is held down Cinco de Mayo Avenue, and festivities include a reenactment of the famous battle. Men dress as French and Mexican soldiers and generals, and women wear the clothing of the “soldaderas,” the women who cooked and looked after the soldiers in wartime. In some representations, the Mexican soldiers carry machetes and old gun-power rifles, and the French soldiers carry bags with wine bottles and fruit.
Puebla has much more to offer besides its traditional Cinco de Mayo sites. Also worth a visit are the museums displaying archeological objects, paintings, railroad cars, and other historic treasures, as well as many shops that specialize in Talavera pottery and traditional treats. Wander through the Los Sapos district to buy antiques and to sample wonderful poblano dishes including mole and chiles en nogada (when in season) from a wide range of restaurants.
Puebla State offers other beautiful cities to visit in addition to its capital city. Cholula, located about 5 miles from the city of Puebla, has a very important archeological site that includes the “Gran Piramide” (the Big Pyramid), also known as the Tenapa Pyramid, occupying more space than any other pyramid in the world. Built on top of the pyramid is the church Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios which was completed in 1666. Its symbolic position stands witness to the role of the Catholic church in the conversion of the indigenous people.
CINCO DE MAYO CELEBRATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
Typically held during the first week of May, Cinco de Mayo boasts carnivals, street fairs and multi-day festivals held over the U.S. Below is a list of some of the largest celebrations in the United States.